EcobreezePure: research- based evidence
Activated carbon as an aid in COVID-19 protection
Activated carbon filters can protect humans from COVID-19 as it traps virus particles (using electrostatic attraction). Moreover, once the viruses are caught, the carbon filter can compromise their structural integrity and essential cell functions, rendering the virus non-harmful. In addition, activated carbon reduces the ability of COVID-19 to spread to other humans.
Certain types of surgery (laparoscopic) possess a high risk of COVID-19 infection as hazardous gases (volatile organic compounds as a byproduct of the surgery) have been shown to have a direct correlation with increased virus transmission. Activated carbon filters can remove these gases from operating theatres, reducing the likelihood of infection. No relationship has been shown between handling the carbon filters and being more likely to contract COVID-19, even when the virus particles are trapped within.
The whole world is experiencing environmental, economic, and public health problems because of COVID-19, air pollution, and waste generation. Activated carbon can act as a single, one-size-fits-all solution. It is an affordable, readily available, and versatile tool for filtering not only viruses, but also bacteria, metals, dyes, dust, smoke, and toxic gases effectively. (Reza et al. 2020)
Antimicrobial effect of silver particles on bacterial contamination of activated carbon HM
Silver-deposited ACF filters show antimicrobial activities and were effective in the control of bioaerosols by inhibition of bacterial survival on the ACF filters, which eventually prevented secondary contamination of ACF filters by breeding of bacteria. Even though the electroless silver deposition did not influence the physical properties of the ACF filters such as the pressure drop and filtration efficiency, the adsorptive efficacy was decreased by silver deposition. Therefore, the silver content needs to be optimized according to the species and the concentrations of background bioaerosols in the intended area of application of the silver-deposited AC filters.
Air filtration through EcobreezePure Ag AC filter
Bacteriostatic Activated Carbon – Silver Impregnated
Bacteriostatic Activated carbon inhibits microbiological growth and biofilms inside activated carbon filters . Activated carbon traps organics which can become a food source for any microbiological flora. Most filter media retain organics which then become hazardous waste and can be more harmful to humans than no filtration.
Silver occurs naturally in the environment, mainly in the form of its very insoluble and immobile oxides, sulphides and some salts. Because silver ions are bacteriastatic, silver is used both as an emergency drinking water disinfectant and impregnated in some filters to prevent microbial regrowth.
The specific antibacterial mechanism of silver is not clearly understood, but research with E. coli and S. aureus has shown that silver treatment of these microorganisms has resulted in DNA losing its replication ability. research has shown that silver can be used in hospital water systems to control Legionella and in cooling towers to control bacterial growth. Silver has also been used to enhance the effectiveness of in inactivating viruses in water.
How does Silver inhibit microbial growth ?
These ions bond with negatively charged areas on the microorganism’s cell walls, affecting cell wall permeability and minimising the intake of life-sustaining nutrients.Inside cells, copper and silver attack sulfur-containing amino acid radicals in the proteins used for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis and reproductive processes are blocked, leading to cell lysis (disintegration) and death.
The greatest benefit of silver is that they remain active in carbon, providing long-term residual, non-toxic protection against recontamination.
Links between air pollution and COVID-19 in England
Recent studies of COVID-19 in several countries identified links between air pollution and death rates. This study explored potential links between major fossil fuel-related air pollutants and SARS-CoV-2 mortality in England. After controlling for population density, age and median income, a positive relationship was shown between air pollutant concentrations, particularly nitrogen oxides, and COVID-19 mortality and infectivity. Using detailed UK Biobank data, it was also shown that PM2.5 was a major contributor to COVID-19 cases in England, as an increase of 1 m3 in the long term average of PM2.5 was associated with a 12% increase in COVID-19 cases. The relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 withstands variations in the temporal scale of assessments (single-year vs 5-year average) and remains significant after adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic and health-related variables. It was concluded that a small increase in air pollution leads to a large increase in the COVID-19 infectivity and mortality rate in England. (Travaglio et al. 2021)
Activated Carbon use against VOCs – indoor pollution
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are one of the most common air pollutants emitted from industries like chemical and petrochemical industries, as well as when plastics are burned. It is very harmful to our environment which affects climate change, the life cycle of plants and the health of all living beings. It is therefore necessary to control its emission for improvement of air quality beneficial to the indoor environment. Several aldehydes and ketones have been removed effectively using activated coconut shell carbon. It is observed from this study that activated carbon-based techniques are effective for removal of VOCs and enhancing the indoor air quality. (Mondal et al. 2019).
Pollutants from Other Air Cleaners
Some air cleaning technologies may emit potentially harmful byproducts during operation. For example, PCO air cleaners have been shown to generate formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Plasma air cleaners have been shown to form ozone, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde as byproducts. Additionally, many electronic air cleaner devices —including portable and duct-mounted ESPs, ionizers or ion generators, uncoated UVGI lamps, and other products that advertise the use of “plasma,” “ions,” and other similar terms — can generate high amounts of ozone. Ozone is a well-documented lung irritant. Intentional ozone generators should not be used in occupied spaces.
Human health impacts of ozone
When inhaled, ozone can damage the lungs. Relatively low amounts can cause chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath and throat irritation. Ozone may also worsen chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and compromise the ability of the body to fight respiratory infections. Healthy people, as well as those with respiratory difficulty, can experience breathing problems when exposed to ozone. Exercise during exposure to ozone causes a greater amount of ozone to be inhaled and increases the risk of harmful respiratory effects. Recovery from the harmful effects can occur following short-term exposure to low levels of ozone, but health effects may become more damaging and recovery less certain at higher levels or from longer exposures (U.S. EPA 1996a, 1996b).
Ozone is a powerful oxidant reacting with organic molecules, and therefore has bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal actions. At the same time, it is a toxic substance, having adverse effects on health and safety. Its use is being proposed for the disinfection of workplaces and public places, and for disposable masks and personal protective equipment disinfection for reuse, with particular reference to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Ozone can be generated in situ by means of small, compact ozone generators, using dried ambient air as a precursor. It should be injected into the room that is to be disinfected until the desired ozone concentration is reached; after the time needed for the disinfection, its concentrations must be reduced to the levels required for the workers’ safety. The optimal use of ozone is for air and surface disinfection without human presence, using a concentration that is effective for the destruction of viruses, but not high enough to deteriorate materials. (Grignani et al. 2020)
Ionic appliances produce ozone, a respiratory irritant, and in one study caused an increase in submicrometer particulates. SBZ filtration was shown to be effective in three clinical studies. The best and most cost-effective approach may be to consider “combination filtration” using high-efficiency WHF with PRAC or breathing zone filtration in the bedroom.
EPA. 1996a. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Center for Environmental Assessment-RTP Office; Report Nos. EPA/600/P-93/004aF-cF, 3v. NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB-185582, PB96-185590 and PB96-185608.
EPA. 1996b. Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Assessment of Scientific and Technical Information. OAQPS Staff Paper. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park. NC. EPA-452/R-96-007.
Frigerio, Francesco & Grignani, Elena & Tirabasso, Angelo & Spagnoli, Mariangela & Mansi, Antonella & Castellano, Paola & Fabrizi, Giovanni & Sisto, Renata & Cabella, Renato & Tranfo, Giovanna. (2020). Safe and Effective Use of Ozone as Air and Surface Disinfectant in the Conjuncture of Covid-19. Gases. 1. 10.3390/gases1010002.
Ki Young Yoon, Jeong Hoon Byeon, Chul Woo Park, and Jungho Hwang. Antimicrobial Effect of Silver Particles on Bacterial Contamination of Activated Carbon Fibers. Environmental Science & Technology 2008 42 (4), 1251-1255. DOI: 10.1021/es0720199
Mondal, Sujon & Saha, Purna. (2019). Removal of VOCs and Improvement of Indoor Air Quality Using Activated Carbon Air Filter. 10.1007/978-981-15-5235-9_10.
M.S Reza et al. Analysis on Preparation, Application, and Recycling of
Activated Carbon to Aid in COVID-19 Protection. International Journal of Integrated Engineering Vol. 12 No. 5 (2020) p. 233-244
Marco Travaglio, Yizhou Yu, Rebeka Popovic, Liza Selley, Nuno Santos Leal, Luis Miguel Martins. 2021 Links between air pollution and COVID-19 in England. Environmental Pollution. Volume 268, Part A.115859. ISSN 0269-7491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115859.